What Is Two-Factor Authorisation

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA), sometimes called dual-factor authentication or two-step verification, is a security process in which users provide two different authentication factors to verify their identity. This method offers an additional layer of security to the standard password-only approach.

Here's how 2FA typically works:

  • First Factor: The first factor is something the user knows, such as a password or PIN. When you enter your password to log into a service, this is the initial step of the authentication process.
  • Second Factor: After entering the password, the user is prompted to provide another piece of information. This second factor can be:
    • Something the user has: This could be a physical device like a security token, a bank card, or a software-based token on a smartphone (often referred to as an "authenticator" app). Common examples include the Google Authenticator app or hardware tokens that generate time-based one-time passwords (TOTP).
    • Something the user is: This involves biometrics, such as fingerprints, retina scans, or facial recognition.
    • Something the user receives: Often, this is a code sent via SMS or email. However, it's worth noting that while SMS-based 2FA is more secure than not using 2FA at all, it's less secure than other methods due to potential vulnerabilities like SIM swapping attacks.
After the user successfully provides both authentication factors, they are granted access to their account.

Benefits of 2FA:

  • Enhanced Security: Even if malicious actors obtain your password, they would still need the second authentication factor to access your account. This makes it significantly more challenging for unauthorized users to gain access.
  • Protection Against Phishing: In a phishing attack, a user might be tricked into providing their password. However, unless the attacker has access to the second authentication factor, they still cannot access the account.
  • Mitigation of Password Limitations: Users often choose weak passwords or reuse passwords across multiple services. 2FA provides an additional layer of security that doesn't solely rely on the strength of the password.
  • Regulatory Compliance: Some industries have regulations requiring enhanced security measures, including 2FA.
However, while 2FA significantly enhances security, no system is entirely invulnerable. Users should still be cautious about phishing attempts that may target their second factor, especially if it's something they receive, like an SMS code.

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